Thursday, September 09, 2010

Saqib's Al-Taqiyya: Misquote & Context

The comment included in this post is illustrative of the professional practice of al-taqiyya.  The  deception is very slickly executed,  difficult for the uninitiated to detect and counter.

Saqib has left a new comment on your post "Qur'an: Read it before Burning it":

But if they turn away, catch them and slaughter them wherever ye find them; and (in any case) take no friends or helpers from their ranks.” (4:89)

This verse has been misquoted like the previous verse, out of context. Here is the full passage:

4:88-91 Why should ye be divided into two parties about the Hypocrites? Allah hath upset them for their (evil) deeds. Would ye guide those whom Allah hath thrown out of the Way? For those whom Allah hath thrown out of the Way, never shalt thou find the Way. They but wish that ye should reject Faith, as they do, and thus be on the same footing (as they): so take not friends from their ranks until they forsake the domain of evil in the way of God (from what is forbidden). But if they revert to [open] enmity, seize them and slay them wherever ye find them; and (in any case) take no friends or helpers from their ranks. Except those who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty (Of peace), or those who approach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. If God had pleased, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you: therefore if they withdraw from you but fight you not, and (instead) send you (guarantees of) peace, then God hath opened no way for you (to war against them). Others you will find that wish to gain your confidence as well as that of their people: every time they are sent back to temptation, they succumb thereto; if they withdraw not from you nor give you (guarantees) of peace besides restraining their hands, seize them and slay them wherever ye get them; in their case We have provided you with a clear argument against them

So in the same manner as the first verse, this verse also only commands Muslims to fight those who practice oppression or persecution, or attack the Muslims. And in the event of a battle, the same laws of war are in place and a Muslim who transgresses limits should prepare for the punishment of God. In response to a question on verses 4:88-89, Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi quotes the verses in their full context and then asks the following:

Now tell me honestly, do these verses give a free permission to kill any one anywhere? These verses were revealed by God to Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), at the time when Muslims were attacked by the non-Muslims of Makkah on a regular basis. They were frightening the Muslim community of Madinah. One may say using the contemporary jargon that there were constant terrorist attacks on Madinah and in this situation Muslims were given permission to fight back the “terrorist”. These verses are not a permission for “terrorism” but they are a warning against the “terrorists.” But even in these warnings you can see how much restraint and care is emphasized. (SOURCE, emphasis added)

It is also important to note that the Qur’an clearly condemns murder. The Qur’an says about the prohibition of murder,

6:151 Take not life, which God hath made sacred, except by way of justice and law: thus does He command you, that ye may learn wisdom. 17:33 Nor take life, which God has made sacred, except for just cause. And if anyone is slain wrongfully, We have given his heir authority (to demand Qisas(retribution) or to forgive): but let him not exceed bounds in the matter of taking life; for he is helped (by the law) 5:32…if any one slew a person - unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land - it would be as if he slew the whole people: and if any one saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people

    The cited verse: 4:89 is quoted exactly once in the post: in the context of a quote from Reliance of the Traveller, the handbook of Shafi'ite Fiqh.  Here is the relevant portion of the quote, part of the legal definition of  jihad.

Fortunately for us, Islamic law includes a clear and unambiguous definition of jihad. For clarity and ease of exploration, I have added emphasis and links to external references.
o9.0: Jihad
(O: Jihad means to war against non-Muslims, and is etymologically derived from the word mujahada signifying warfare to establish the religion. And it is the lesser jihad. As for the greater jihad, it is spiritual warfare against the lower self (nafs), which is why the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said as he was returning from jihad.
``We have returned from the lesser jihad to the greater jihad.''
The scriptural basis for jihad, prior to scholarly consensus (def: b7) is such Koranic verses as:
-1- ``Fighting is prescribed for you'' (Koran 2:216);
-2- ``Slay them wherever you find them'' (Koran 4:89);
-3- ``Fight the idolators utterly'' (Koran 9:36);

    Notice that three ayat were cited in Reliance o9.0.  I added links to the Noble Qur'an translation by Hilali & Khan published by the King Fahd Complex.  Any reader who is interested can click the links, read the full quotes, context and translator's footnotes.  The quoted expression does not occur in the Noble Qur'an, it only turned up in Reliance. If we substitute kill for slay, we find more appropriate quotes.
  • 2:191. And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing. And fight not with them at Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (the sanctuary at Makkah), unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers. 
    • In this context, the reference is to defensive or retaliatory jihad. But see the footnote to the previous ayat, which contains a similar definition of jihad.
  • 4:89. They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected (Faith), and thus that you all become equal (like one another). So take not Auliyâ' (protectors or friends) from them, till they emigrate in the Way of Allâh (to Muhammad ). But if they turn back (from Islâm), take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Auliyâ' (protectors or friends) nor helpers from them. 
    • In context, this ayeh is in reference to hypocrites who abandoned faith in Islam and or refused to join the jihad.
  • 9:5. Then when the Sacred Months (the Ist, 7th, 11th, and 12th months of the Islâmic calendar) have passed, then kill the Mushrikûn (see V.2:105) wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and prepare for them each and every ambush. But if they repent and perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and give Zakât, then leave their way free. Verily, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 
    • This is the infamous "verse of the sword" , its reference is  to the pagans of Mecca, it is related to offensive, not defensive jihad.
    If I was writing Umdat al-Salik, I would cite 9:5 instead of 4:89, but the operative text is the same, and the book was written hundreds of years before my birth.

    In the context of the quoted section of Reliance, the cited ayat are used to illustrate the meaning of jihad: "to war against non-Muslims".  The definition did not specify whether the jihad is defensive or offensive.

    I do not need to prove  that Reliance is perfect.  It could have been written better, but that is not up to me. Reliance is accepted as authentic by Islam's highest academic authorities. The certification  from Al-Azhar is on page 16.

    Maliki Fiqh also defines Jihad and reveals that it refers to offensive warfare. I direct doubters & dissenters to Book 30, Page  284 of the pdf version of Risala.

30.1 Its meaning
[ Linguistically jihad is derived from jahd, which, acording to al-Misbah, is effort in what someone
does, or juhd which is ability. It is a technical term for the Muslim fighting the unbelievers who have
no treaty with the intention of elevating the word of Allah or presenting Islam.

30.2b. Inviting people to Islam first
And it is preferable, according to us, that the enemy are not fought until they have been invited
to the din of Allah except if they attack first.
[The Malikis prefer that each group be called upon to abandon their disbelief and be called to the
shahada whose contents are not prescribed. He calls to the general message of the Prophet for three
days in succession unless they attack first. Then the call is not recommended. Indeed, it becomes
obligatory to fight them.]
30.2c. Offering a choice between Islam and jizya
They can either accept Islam or pay the jizya (tax on non-Muslims); if not they are to be fought.

    Now it is time to deal with Saqib's question: " Now tell me honestly, do these verses give a free permission to kill any one anywhere?"
No, they do not, nor do they exhaust the Qur'an's rich vein of violent verses. They were used specifically to illustrate the defination of Jihad Asghar.  No claim was made by me that those verses sanction killing in general.

    There is a verse often cited by Muslims: 5:32, which they use to "show" that Islam is "peaceful".

5:32. Because of that We ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone killed a person not in retaliation of murder, or (and) to spread mischief in the land - it would be as if he killed all mankind, and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind. And indeed, there came to them Our Messengers with clear proofs, evidences, and signs, even then after that many of them continued to exceed the limits (e.g. by doing oppression unjustly and exceeding beyond the limits set by Allâh by committing the major sins) in the land!.

How peaceful and benevolent! Killing one is as bad as killing all mankind, saving one life carries the merit of saving the human race.  Ain't that sweet?  Muslims love to accuse us of "cherry picking" and quoting verses out of context. So why do they conceal the next verse in context?  Who has heard or seen them quoting 5:33?

5:33. The recompense of those who wage war against Allâh and His Messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and their feet be cut off on the opposite sides, or be exiled from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in the Hereafter.

    This verse  prescribes hudud for those who "wage war against Allah".  They shall be killed, crucified, mutilated or be exiled.  What is the meaning of "wage war against Allah"?  The verse does not tell us, but Ibn Kathir reveals the meaning in his tafsir.

"`Wage war' mentioned here means, oppose and contradict, and it includes disbelief, blocking roads and spreading fear in the fairways."

"Waging war against Allah" includes disbelief.   Muslims are prohibited from killing innocent people, but only Muslims are innocent, all others are rebels against Allah.  Got a clue yet?

    In the post upon which Saqib commented, I quoted Reliance of the Traveller o9.8 , which codify the offensive jihad imperative found in  9:29 .  Those are outcome oriented fight... until loops with compound terminal conditions and neither chronological nor geographic limits.

     Islamic law says "The caliph makes war upon Jews..."  and "The caliph fights all other peoples...". Here is the link:  o9.8   o9.9 is on the next page.   I also provided a link to  Reliance of the Traveller, Book o9.1  but did not quote it. That section describes the communal obligation to perform jihad   Saqib wants us to believe that Muslims only fight in self defense, never offensively. But his assertion is devastated by o9.1.

o9.1: The Obligatory Character of Jihad
Jihad is a communal obligation (def: c3.2).  When enough people perform it to successfully accomplish it, it is no longer obligatory upon others (O: the evidence for which is the Prophet's saying (Allah bless him and give him peace),
"He who provides the equipment for a soldier in jihad has himself performed jihad,"
and Allah Most High having said:
"Those of the believers who are unhurt but sit behind are not equal to those who fight in Allah's path with their property and lives. Allah has preferred those who fight with their property and lives a whole degree above those who sit behind. And to each, Allah has promised great good" (Koran 4:95).
If none of those concerned perform jihad, and it does not happen at all, then everyone who is aware that it is obligatory is guilty of sin, if there was a possibility of having performed it. In the time of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) jihad was a communal obligation after his emigration (hijra) to Medina. As for subsequent times, there are two possible states in respect to non-Muslims.
The first is when they are in their own countries, in which case jihad (def: o9.8) is a communal obligation, and this is what our author is speaking of when he says, "Jihad is a communal obligation," meaning upon the Muslims each year.
The second state is when non-Muslims invade a Muslim country or near to one, in which case jihad is personally obligatory (def: c3.2) upon the inhabitants of that country, who must repel the non-Muslims with whatever they can).

    I added emphasis to several crucial clauses. Muslims wage war against non-Muslims in their own countries and they do it every year.   There is another quote from Al-Shafi'i which erases all doubt.

    Muslims pretend that we are stupid, ignorant and gullible fools incapable of independent research and thought.  They dream that we can be diverted and distracted off onto dead end tangents.  But I have presented in this blog the ayat, ahadith, tafsir & fiqh relevant  to offensive jihad.  Those documents form a congruent pattern which makes  objective factual reality easy to perceive.

    In determining the meaning of the Qur'an, we are not limited to tafsir and scholarly analysis. We have the advantage of history.  Moe hired scribes to whom he dictated extortion letters. He  dispatched his companions to deliver those letters and afterwards, he followed up with his army.


In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

From Muhammad, the Prophet of Allah who is like Moosa (Moses A.S.) a prophet and messenger and he testifies to what Moosa (A.S.) had brought.

0 people of Torah, has Allah not stated in the Torah that "Muhammad (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) is a Prophet of Allah. The people who will be with him, shall be harsh towards the enemies of Allah. And amongst themselves, they shall be kind and loving. They shall bow and prostrate before Allah. And they shall seek His bounty and goodwill".

I ask you to swear by Allah, who sent Torah for you and who made your forefathers eat 'mann, and 'Salva' and dried sea for them and rid them of the tyranny of pharaoh. It is not written in Torah that you should believe in me?

After the explanation about me in the Torah, do guidance and transgression become apparent?

Therefore I invite you towards Allah and His Prophet.'

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 52, Number 143:
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
The Prophet said to Abu Talha, "Choose one of your boy servants to serve me in my expedition to Khaibar." So, Abu Talha took me letting me ride behind him while I was a boy nearing the age of puberty. I used to serve Allah's Apostle when he stopped to rest. I heard him saying repeatedly, "O Allah! I seek refuge with You from distress and sorrow, from helplessness and laziness, from miserliness and cowardice, from being heavily in debt and from being overcome by men." Then we reached Khaibar; and when Allah enabled him to conquer the Fort (of Khaibar), the beauty of Safiya bint Huyai bin Akhtab was described to him. Her husband had been killed while she was a bride. So Allah's Apostle selected her for himself and took her along with him till we reached a place called Sad-AsSahba,' where her menses were over and he took her for his wife. Haris (a kind of dish) was served on a small leather sheet. Then Allah's Apostle told me to call those who were around me. So, that was the marriage banquet of Allah's Apostle and Safiya. Then we left for Medina. I saw Allah's Apostle folding a cloak round the hump of the camel so as to make a wide space for Safiya (to sit on behind him) He sat beside his camel letting his knees for Safiya to put her feet on so as to mount the camel. Then, we proceeded till we approached Medina; he looked at Uhud (mountain) and said, "This is a mountain which loves us and is loved by us." Then he looked at Medina and said, "O Allah! I make the area between its (i.e. Medina's) two mountains a sanctuary as Abraham made Mecca a sanctuary. O Allah! Bless them (i.e. the people of Medina) in their Mudd and Sa (i.e. measures)."

    For those who can not  read between the lines and connect the dots, I present another letter which leaves nothing to the imagination.


In the name of ALLAH the compassionate, the Merciful

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah

To the People of Aqaba

May peace be on you. I praise Allah who is one and except whom there is nobody else to be worshipped.

I do not intend to wage war against you till you receive my written reason for it. It is better for you, either to accept Islam or agree to pay Jiziya and consent to remain obedient to Allah, His prophet and his messengers. My messengers deserve honour. Treat them with respect. Whatever pleases my messengers, will also please me.

These people have been informed of the orders about Jiziya. If you desire that there should be peace and security in the world, obey Allah and His Prophet. Thereafter none in Arabia and Ajam (Iran) shall dare cast an evil eye on you. But the rights of Allah and His Prophet can at no time be waived.

If you do not accept these terms and set them aside, I do not need your presents and gifts. In that case, I shall have to wage war (to establish peace and security). Its result would be that the big ones shall be killed in war and the commoners shall be taken prisoners.

I assure you that I am a true Prophet of Allah. I believe in Allah, and His Books, and His Prophets and am of the faith that Maseeh (Messiah) son of Mariam (Mary), is a Prophet of Allah and His word.

Hurmala (Raziallah AnhoA.) who brought to me 3 wasaq (about 6 quintals) of barley, recommended your case. Had it not been in compliance of the command of Allah and the good opinion of Hurmala for you, it would not have been necessary for me to correspond with you and instead of it, there would have been a war. If you will obey my messengers, you shall immediately have my support and the help and support of everyone who is attached to me.

My messengers are Shuraih-beel, Obaiy, Hurmala and Hurais (Raziallah AnhoA.) and whatever decision they take in respect of you, shall be acceptable to me.

Your people are under the protection and responsibility of Allah and His Prophet.

Supply provisions to the Jews of Maqna, for their journey to their country.

If you accept obedience, may peace be on you.'

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad .

1 comment:

SlantRight 2.0 said...

I have to admit I didn't read the whole post, but what I did read was awesome - as usual.