Friday, August 13, 2010

Reliance of the Traveller: Handbook of Shari'ah

Reliance Update Update 06-02-'17: All the links to Reliance in this blog post are broken. It has been pulled down from the archive again. There is one new upload to another site, but it will be short lived, so I ain't bothering to post it. 

Get real! National Navy Information Center, this includes you!  Go to Amazon and purchase hard copy. That is the only way to be assured of a complete, authentic copy. Here:

Yeah, I know, you want to save $41. We all do. That's the breaks. If you need to know, you need to show green.

    The laws of marriage are in book m, the laws of divorce in book n and the laws of 'justice' including Jihad, are in book o. It is 1251 pages, happy hunting!

Reliance covers the Shafi'i madhab. For the Hanafi madhab, as in India and the Ottoman Empire, you need Hedaya. There is a two volume set at Google Books, get both volumes. if you need the details of the laws of slavery, you need vol. 1, it is your only real hope. Keller did not translate that part, deeming it anachronistic, which it ain't, of cuss.
The laws relating to crime, punishments, marriage, divorce and slavery are in the first volume. The laws of Jihad begin on page 139 of the second volume. Note that Hedaya explains the differences between schools of Islamic law.  It is dense, archaic and difficult but worthwhile.

Risala is the fiqh of the Hanafi madhab. It is shorter, less detailed and easiest to read.

    If you really want to comprehend the laws relating to Jihad, then you need "The Book Of Jihad" . This book will piss you off! Put away all fire, spill and choke hazards before opening it! Put women, children and fragile pets in a safe room. Don't claim I did not warn you!

    If, for some unfortunate reason, you really need to develop expertise, then you need to read the Qur'an and at least one of the two sahih.  For the law of commerce, you need Malik's Muwatta.
    1. Note: The English Only ed. of Bukhari is Bowdlerized, important stuff was omitted. But it uses the common numbering system found on the web.

Update 03/23/17:
Reliance In the Archive
    Sorry, you were excrement outta luck. They got the last download link!  Go buy a hard copy from Amazon or find a friend who already has the file on his hard drive.

:) God help me, I was wrong!  But probably not for long, so act quickly!!! I just found the link above in the internet archive!!!!

Update 02/03/17:
Most of the links in this post have been broken by external site changes. The pdf scans of reliance have been pulled down. At present, only a pdf containing the English translation is available, and I do not expect it to remain up for long.
Note: Keller did not translate the laws relating to slavery. If you need that information, read about it in the first volume of Hedaya, particularly the sections on marriage and divorce.

     For a quick survey, download "A Summary Of Islamic Jurisprudence" from the internet archive. For the fiqh particular to Jihad, download " The Book Of Jihad" from the internet archive. is defunct, There is an old copy in the wayback machine if you know how to find and use it in the internet archive. . 

Critical update 10/26/16: new source discovered! * o This is a pdf of the English language translation, no Arabic. There are missing links in the table of contents but in the parts I checked, the text is present and you can search for or scroll to it. o The Index Bibliography appear to be missing. The text appears to be authentic. + Alternative source: # found here: o found here + # found here * * This page contains a great deal of useful information about the book. Update 06-11-16: Many links are broken. This one works at this time:

Updated 03/8/'14 to fix broken links. crusaders Armory is now a .tk domain. 
This post is spurred by recent interest in tags related to Reliance of the Traveller. Updating this post with new links including links to the handbooks of other schools of Shari'ah was motivated by a cross link posted in Family Security Matters  this excellent article at Family Security Matters by Ed Cline has raised several important points which require posts of their own for deeper exploration.

    Islamic law is derived from Muhammad's recitation and example: Qur'an & Sunnah. "Umdat as-Salik wa 'Uddat an-Nasik (Reliance of the Traveller and Tools of the Worshipper, also commonly known by its shorter title Reliance of the Traveller) is a classical manual of fiqh for the Shafi'i school of Islamic jurisprudence. Here is the Wikipedia entry

The book is about 1251 pages long. While you can search it at Muhaddith,  there are some limitations to the search. The text has been posted an an educational site, from which I took these quotations. This is a raw text file, and some of it is extremely RAW! I suggest using the Ctrl F search function to find what you are seeking if you go there and delve into it: That text version is not complete, it ends with Book V.

Islamic Bulletin has an extensive librarywhich includes two versions of Reliance.

    The laws concerning marriage, divorce, crime & punishments, and jihad are imposed upon non-Muslims where Allah's writ runs.  Islamic law forbids charging or receiving interest. Shari'ah compliant commerce involves the proscription of all interest and all traffic with Israel.  It also involves the payment of 2.5%  Zakat on financial transactions  as well as on increase in wealth.  What most westerners don't know is that 1/8  of Zakat collections must be paid to the terrorists to finance their war against us.  It is illegal to give Zakat to Kuffar.

H8.7: The Eight Categories of Recipients

It is obligatory to distribute one's zakat among eight categories of recipients (O: meaning that zakat goes to none besides them), one-eighth of the zakat to each category. (n: In the Hanafi school, it is valid for the giver to distribute his zakat to all of the categories, some of them, or to confine himself to just one of them (al-Lubab fi sharh al-Kitab(y88), 1.155). )

H8.17: Those Fighting for Allah

The seventh category is those fighting for Allah, meaning people engaged in Islamic military operations for whom no salary has been allotted in the army roster (O: but who are volunteers for jihad without remuneration).  They are given enough to suffice them for the operation, even if affluent; of weapons, mounts, clothing, and expenses (O: for the duration of the journey, round trip, and the time they spend there, even if prolonged.


It is not permissible to give zakat to a non-Muslim, or to someone whom one is obliged to support (def: m12.1), such as a wife or family member.

Some of the most important provisions have been documented with screen shots from the search engine at Muhaddith.

    A series of blog posts about Shari'ah has been compiled into a Windows Help File (chm). Shari'ah.chm (100K Zipped) Compiled from a series of articles about Shari'ah, how it can affect you and what you can do to stop it.

     Reliance is the handbook of Shafi'i fiqh, authenticated by the Sheikhs of Al-Azhar  University.  The Maliki  school's Risala is shorter, less detailed and easier to read.  Unfortunately, it is only available in pdf format here:

     Hedaya is the handbook of Hanifi fiqh. Printed in an antique type face, densely packed and couched in arcane and archaic vocabulary, it is difficult to read. Hedaya, however, points out the differences between itself and the Shafi'i school. making it a useful tool for research.  It adds a great deal of clarity to the issues of Jihad & Jizya. These links go directly to those issues in the second volume of the two volume edition.

    If you seek information about the Islamic laws governing slavery, Reliance will frustrate you because the translator deemed that  material obsolete and omitted it.  The laws regulating slavery were not expunged from Hedaya, being spread through Volume 1.  The 785 pages of Vol. 4 contain 2604 instances of "slave".  use the Shift ^F advanced search function of Adobe Reader to find them. 


Anonymous said...

Thanks for the link to "Reliance of the Traveler."

It really is an open door into the twisted psyche of muhanimals.

Most telling, for me, is the definition of slander.

"Slander (ghiba) means to mention anything
concerning a person that he would dislike..."

Explains why the muhanimals have histronics and accuse people of slander when they quote from mein kuranmpf. And the overused "media paints a wrong picture of islam."

So in the kuranimal mind telling the truth is slander.

Ben said...

You are welcome, anonymous, sharing knowledge and sources of knowledge is what this blog is for.

Islam is sensitive to criticism & inquisition because it is false & malignant. The Ummah may be unaware of that, but many of the Ulema are not.

Moe dispatched his companions to murder poets who criticized him. Reliance O8.1 prescribes the penalty for apostasy and O8.7 defines the act. In Chapters 10 and 11 we discover the restrictions placed on conquered Christians and their subjection to the death penalty for criticizing Islam.

Anonymous said...

zakat has a particular ruling which muslims are obliged to follow. however, muslims are not restricted from giving charity to whomever they please, muslim and nonmuslim alike. hope that gives clarity

Ben said...

H8.14: Those Whose Hearts are to be Reconciled

The fourth category is those whose hearts are to be reconciled. If they are non-Muslims, they are not given zakat, but if Muslims, then they may be given it (O: so that their certainly may increase, or if they are recent converts to Islam and are alienated from their kin).

Those to be reconciled include:

-1- the chief personages of a people (O: with weak Islamic intentions) whose Islam may be expected to improve, or whose peers may be expected to enter Islam;

-2- or the heads of a people who collect zakat for us from Muslims living near them who refuse to pay it, or who fight an enemy for us at considerable expense and trouble to themselves.

Consider the fact that I might have good reason for publishing links to Islamic texts.


It is not permissible to give zakat to a non-Muslim, or to someone whom one is obliged to support (def: m12.1), such as a wife or family member.

Anonymous said...

Zakat is a tax. Non muslims may not receive zakat but they are also not obliged to pay it. They are also free to practice their own religions in a true islamic state, not the so called islamic states we see today which are not really islamic.
Of course part of tax is paid to armed forces, this is the same in a majority of christian or secular states.
I am shocked at your hatred. I personally would never think of calling you an animal.

Ben said...

Zakat is the Islamic CHARITY TAX. It is imposed for the ostensible purpose of aiding the poor. I refer doubters & dissentes to Book H of Reliance of the Traveller.

If there are poor dhimmis in the Islamic state, Zakat is not given to them, it is only given to Muslims.


It is not permissible to give zakat to a non-Muslim, or to someone whom one is obliged to support (def: m12.1), such as a wife or family member.

1/8 of Zakat is used to support those fighting in Allah's cause.

H8.17: Those Fighting for Allah

The seventh category is those fighting for Allah, meaning people engaged in Islamic military operations for whom no salary has been allotted in the army roster (O: but who are volunteers for jihad without remuneration). They are given enough to suffice them for the operation, even if affluent; of weapons, mounts, clothing, and expenses (O: for the duration of the journey, round trip, and the time they spend there, even if prolonged. Though nothing has been mentioned here of the expense involved in supporting such people's families during this period, it seems clear that they should also be given it).

Allah's cause is total global conquest. Get a clue for Chrissake.

Jizya is a tax imposed on dhimmis in lieu of Zakat and other taxes imposed on Muslims.

Nobody becomes a dhimmi except those conquered or intimidated by Islamic aggression. Read At-Taubah 29 abd re-read it unti the meaning sinks in.

"Fight those who...until... Muslims start it, Muslims finish it. Its an imperative foraggressive conquest. End result: subjugation & extortion. Get a clue for Chrissake.

Anonymous said...

Thanks for the link to Reliance of the Traveler. I needed that book for my studies. However, this quote from your post "What most westerners don't know is that 1/8 of Zakat collections must be paid to the terrorists to finance their war against us", is if my must say completey insane. haha. please don't ever say that to a Muslim he will start laughing in your face. Maybe a member of the Afghani Taliban might relate to your website better. hahaha.

Anonymous said...

I apologize for double posts. I would like to add that Zakat is not Charity, Tax, etc; it is actually the right of poor people or other deserving recipients on the monetary savings a Muslim has throughout the course of one lunar year. That is why in Fiqh it is called "ikhraj az-zakat" or "giving out zakat". Which basically means that the poor already own it, and it is not yours if you qualify to be in the financial bracket of giving out Zakat. Hope this makes sense.

Also "Reliance of the Traveler" is basically intended as a Sufi (sufi: the traveler to God) manual of Fiqh for the students of Shaykh Nuh Keller in the path of the Shadhili Tariqa. For e.g.
"Slander (ghiba) means to mention anything concerning a person that he would dislike...".
Lol, that means you cannot talk behind the person's back no matter what happens. In other words, to cover another persons' faults, including non-Muslims. It could be somewhat similar to what Confucius said in his Analects: "What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others".
Honestly guys, please study the Islamic literature properly; don't just jump to random conclusions based on your weird personal interpretations and perceptions.

best regards.

Ben said...

Dear Anonymous,
H8.17 is crystal clear about the matter of financing Jihad.

1/8 * .025 *$$$ can be a hefty sum when large bank, securities and real estate transfers are considered. The gross tax base can be in the billions. We are not discussing t riffling sums.

Moe actively engaged in income redistribution, using spoils of war to lure potential converts. Sometimes his companions complained about it; read 8:1 carefully. See also Sahih Bukhari's book of Khumus, #53 in the Khan translation.

Ben said...

Dear Anonymous,
Regarding H8.17, The quote I posted is obvious and crystal clear. Mujahideen are one of the eight categories of recipients.

Anyone with the long green can go to, purchase a hard copy and verify what I have posted.

Anonymous said...

Dear Ben,
With all due respect, after taking a look at the aforementioned H8.18 and Book #56 from Bukhari, I would once again say that, "please study the Islamic literature properly, and within its correct frame of referece/context". Arriving at unlearned guesses based on one's personal interpretations and perceptions regarding a text, only shows to betray the faculty of a sound intellect.

sincerest regards.

Ben said...

Dear anonymous, the correct reference in Reliance is H8.17:

The correct reference is Bukhari is Book 53 : Khumus; in the Khan translation:

In the Bewley translation, Book 62:

Anonymous said...

Dear Ben,
I do not understand what the problem is? For example, if one lives in US and the government collects Taxes and then they spend that money on miltary operations to invade other countries, or whatever, how is that different from Zakat? However, I do apologize as this is a very crude example that I have given of Zakat.

The concept of Jihad, in the frame of military operations is often misunderstood. For clarification on this topic please check this short article:

Once again, I would say that please study the teachings of Islam with an open mind - objectively, not subjectively. To interpret or misapply the verses of the Quran, statements from Hadith, and etc in order to justify ones personal bias, will not increase ones learning or help solve the problem.

Ben said...

Dear Anonymous, It is very difficult to communicate this concept to a Muslim, but that does not deter me.

"Jihad is ordained for you"...
"Fight them until"...
"Fight those who"...from among the "people of the book"... "until"...
"The caliph makes war upon Jews"...
"The caliph fights all other peoples"...

Jihad is a "communal obligation"... "meaning upon the Muslims each year"...

"Destruction of the sword is incurred by infidels though they be not the first aggressors."
"Jihad must be performed continuously by some party of the Muslims"

For those who have eyes to see & brains to read and comprehend, the central concept of Islam is conquest: aggressive warfare undertaken on Islamic initiative.

The problem: Islam is predatory; Muslims are predators. Moe got his income by his spear; he was "made wealthy through conquests".

If one lives in the U.S.A. and purchases Shari'ah compliant insurance, annuities, investments or mortgages from A.I.G., 2.5% of the transaction goes to Zakat; 12.5% of that Zakat funds Jihad against us and our allies.

Anonymous said...

Dearest Ben,
I understand your concern, and the perspective that you are arriving from. I also greatly appreciate that you were able to maintain high level of decency during our conversation; however, I was saddened by the fact that you used the offensive term 'Moe' for Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Up till that point my heart was refreshed to see that you were different from the other types of people that I have observed on anti-Islamic sites. I am grateful that you took out some of your time to discuss these topics with me, and I wish you all the best in your endeavours and researches. And I hope that God takes you into His Mercy and illumines your heart and consciousness with His infinite light in the manner that befits His Majesty, and the way in which He finds most suitable for you. Amin.
sincerest regards,

Ben said...

Dear Anonymous,

I believe that salvation is by the grace of Jesus Christ through sincere repentance & reformation, that Allah is Satan and Muhammad, whom I generally refer to as Moe, was a bestial barbarian warlord who deceived hundreds and murdered thousands.

Since October 25, this blog post has been viewed by 46 readers who specifically sought it out because they wanted to know more about Shari'ah.

The significance of that issue has made this one of the most popular posts on this blog for several months.

Anyone doubting the veracity of what I posted here can follow the links to my sources or go to Amazon and purchase hard copies.

The American electorate needs to know that Shari'ah flows from Moe's mouth and the blood he spilled on the battlefield.

They need to know that the domestic law contained in Shari'ah is incompatible with our system of laws.

They need to know that Shari'ah requires perpetual warfare against disbelievers.

They need to know that the system of crime & punishment contained in Shari'ah is incompatible with our Constitution.

Who else will tell them, in detail with links to source documents?

Anonymous said...

Dear Ben,
Thank you for such a detailed response. I am happy to hear that you believe in the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him), follow his teachings, repent to God, and work towards reforming your morals to attain your station in Paradise. I cannot think of a nobler goal than this. Regarding your thoughts about Allah (God Most High) and His Prophet, Muhammad (peace be upon him), I believe I am not in a position where I can offer any comments.
I once again appreciate that you allowed me to carry out a discussion on this blog, and were frank enough to share your personal thoughts with me. If I may have come across as condescending in any way, I would hope that you would forgive me.

sincerest regards,

Ben said...

Dear Anonymous,

This blog exists for the purpose of sharing information. I learned because others shared links on a now defunct Netscape Mid East Tension discussion board.

Matters of life & death, civilization & barbarism are discussed here. There is nothing more important or more vital for the electorate to become aware of.

Most Americans are unaware of Shari'ah and have no knowledge of Reliance, Risala & Hedaya.

I give seekers of knowledge a few relevant quotes and links to their sources. I make readers aware of the existence of those books and their availability on the web and at

I can't make anyone open the Qur'an, Sahih Bukhari or Reliance and read them, but I can tell them where to find those books. The rest is up to the readers.

Ben said...

Anonymous, you are wrong! Not only did I publish your screed, but I blogged it, refuting it point by point.

Larry A. Singleton said...

At one time I ordered some reading material, including Taha;s "Second Message", and a “study” Koran to find out what this "Islam thing" was all about. When I was sixteen I was chanting nam yo ho renge kyo to a piece of paper, (gahonzen?), having NO idea what I was doing. A few years later I hitchhiked cross country, got saved in Nashville Tenn. and went to live on a Christian farm in Mansfield Ohio. My gra'mom called me a "seeker". That said I wanted to understand this "religion of peace". It was Humaid's article on jihad I found in my Summarized Bukhari that decided “things” for me.

If Islam is the “religion of peace”, where in Sheikh Abdullah bin Humaid's article on jihad can I find the equivalent of “Love Thy Neighbor” and “good will toward men”? And explain its prominence, and significance almost as an “Introduction”, in a book that's described as “the most authentic and true among the books of the Prophet”: My Summarized Sahih Al-Bukhari. Also address “jihad” as it's defined in Reliance of the Traveller and answer the same question. (Chapter O-9.0: Jihad O: “Jihad means to war against non-Muslims, and is etymologically derived from the word mujahada signifying warfare to establish the religion.” And explain why the “greater” jihad is only mentioned once here and never seen again in this “Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law”.) Also compare Humaid's “jihad” and Emmet Fox' Sermon on the Mount and tell me which one best represents a spirit of Love and compassion. Lastly; would you pick Sheik bin Humaid to sit on a Human Rights Commission? (That's a trick question by the way.)

Maybe you can throw in an explanation of the Jews are “monkeys, pigs and rats” on page 656 and the part where Mo says, “if somebody (a Muslim) discards his religion, kill him” on page 613 in the chapter on Jihad.

Also, explain why Humaid's “jihad” shouldn't be “Exhibit A” in refuting the “religion of peace” claim.

Jihad in the Qur'an and Sunnah by 'Sheikh Abdullâh bin Muhammad bin Humaid ),

Larry A. Singleton said...

Oh yeah:

Subscribe to Jihad/Campus Watch and the Middle East Forum/Quarterly, Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI) and read Raymond Ibrahim and others.

Ben said...

Dear Larry,

The experts can give us good summations and point out items of intest. Then we can delve into the original source texts for context and detail.

Bin Humaid, Maududi & Ibn Taymiyya make matters clear but there is nothing like Reliance for real authenticity, reinforced by Hedaya & Risala.

Lawyers, Judges, Accountants and other professionals can find hard copies at Amazon, with the exception of Risala. Yes, the post has been searched out by lawyers.

Anonymous said...

Hello, just wanted to tell you, I liked this post. It was funny.
Keep on posting!

Feel free to visit my web site :: hair transplant clinic in hyderabad

Anonymous said...

ӏ am curiouѕ to find oսt what blog system
you happen to be working ѡitҺ? I'm experiencing
some small security issues with my latest blog and I would like to find something more secure.
Do you have any suggestions?

my web blog: website

Ben said...

Dear Anonymous:
Three of my blogs are hosted by Blogger. I have never encountered any hacking or security problems. To the best of my knowledge, there has been no downtime.

For self-hiosted blogs with self-registered domain names, is popular. There are several security packages available for WP, selecting one would require some research.

Anonymous said...

Hеy there great blog! Does running a blog such as this require a great deal of work?
I've virtually no knowledǥe of coding however I had been ɦoping to
start my own blog soon. Anyway, if you have any recommendations ߋr techniquеs for new
blog owners please share. I understand this is
off topic howeveг I just needed to ask. Kudos!

Also viѕit my homepaցe; taxes marriage Penalty

Ben said...

Dear Anonymous:

It is possible using Blogger;s WYSIWYG editor to blog without knowing html.

You should still go to W3 Schools to learn the basics of html and css if you plan to use them.

If you intend to use third party widgets, you should learn enough java script to discover what those scripts are up to.

I frequently spend several hours researching and writing posts.

Anonymous said...

Royalties ɑre often at the hiǥh еnd ߋf аround 80% net
profits аnd paid to thе author bу the free-tօ-publish website company ƅut ѕtill allowing the author tߋ purchase copies ߋf their
book at print cost for selling locally օr nationally bʏ the writer at thе cover price.
Howeνеr fоr a newcomer utilizing іt cаn be quite tough.

And ԝhen her beloved Edgar (Rombauer) passed
аԝay in 1930, it was ɦеr children who persuaded hеr to
finally start writing a cookbook.

Нere іs mʏ homepage; self publish ebook

Anonymous said...

Most people I know say they are interested in educating themselves regarding Islam. But in reality they are not, they won't read books or even the Koran.

Most people could care less.

"Reliance of the Traveler." is must read but as I said hardly anyone in the world will read it unless of course your a muslim.

Ben said...

'Tain't innovation, Wayne, it has been standard Sunni Shari'ah for cnturies. The original application of Naskh was to the Christian & Jewish scriptues. Reliance is an old text translated to English by Noah Keller.

Chapter 9 of Book O is extremely vital to the study of Islamic law. It defines Jihad, describes the communal and individual obligations to perform it, reveals what the caliph does in pursuit thereof and lays down the rules of Jihad. Every Infidel should read it.

A less detailed code can be found in Risala, the fiqh of the Maliki madhab. Unlike Reliance & Hedaya, you can't buy it from Amazon, but you can read and download it here:

Of the three texts, Risala is the best printed and scanned; easiest to read.

Hedaya, available in two volumes from Amazon, Google Books and the online Archive, explains the differences between Hanafi and Sunni schools of Islamic law. Open the second volume to pages 141, 212 & 216 for a real eye full of revelation.

When mendacious preachers and politicians swear that Shari'ah is compatible with the Constitution, we should be ready to cite Reliance Books O, M & N to prove that it is not.

Ben said...

Wayne, al-Misri croaked 246 AH, which pretty well fixes the general date for Reliance.

From the outset, Muslims were commanded to issue dawah for three days and attack if rejected. The exceptions were Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians who would submit to subservient status and extortion. Read the Jihad books of Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

The main determinants being Muslim military capacity relative to that of their intended victims and the piety of the Caliph or Imam.

They can do you anytime they have the capacity to get away with it so long as you are not under a treaty of protection.
So it has been from the beginning.

Unknown said...

Ben You don't know what you are talking about The original was 813 pages the latest REVISION has 1251 pages and does not contain the Abrogation of Christianity and Judaism nor the Obligatory to kill non-muslims which is "obligatory to obey and not lawful to disobey"

I'm speechless at your stupidity. Anyone would think you have another agenda?

Ben said...

The translator omitted the chapter on slavery, claiming it to be anachronistic, which it ain't. He also added some extraneous material from sources other than Al-Misri.

Reliance is certified authentic and accurate by the sheiks of Al-Azhar U in Cairo. The certification is on page 16 if memory serves.

I recommend reading Hedaya in parallel for its discussion of the differences between the fiqh of various schools of Islamic law.

Anonymous said...

Under an islamic state non muslims must pay an annual tax, may not make public any of their religious practices or build any new religious places of worship, like a church for example.
there is plenty of examples where non muslims are made second class citizen's. The islamic state we see today is the closest representation of a true caliphate the world has.

Ben said...

Dear Anonymous:
Those matters are covered in Reliance Book O, chapter 11. But other glaring evils are to be found in the books on marriage, divorce, inheritance and justice.

An infidel woman divorced by a Muslim can not obtain child custody. An apostate can not inherit from an estate unless there is a specific bequest to him. The blood wit for a Christian one third that of a Muslim. Infidels can not hold authority even over other infidels.

Unknown said...

It will help me a lot in adding a reliance of traveller handbook Thanks for helping Hair Transplant Clinic in Hyderabad